- Project Runeberg -  Through the Caucasus to the Volga /
38

(1931) [MARC] Author: Fridtjof Nansen Translator: Gerald C. Wheeler - Tema: Russia
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THROUGH THE CAUCASUS TO THE VOLGA
38
mountains and of the neighbouring districts and
the many hot-springs both north and south of the
range. There are also many cold mineral springs ;
and these hot and cold sulphur and iron springs,
and alkaline, iodine, and bromine springs, and
others, have been known from olden times for their
healing powers. There are many places for treat
ment and baths to be found in their neighbourhood
for the cure of many kinds of sickness and weakness.
Tradition has it that even Alexander the Great’s
men benefited by some of them.
Oil (naphtha) is found in several places round
about the edges of these remarkable mountains,
but especially in the newest geological layers.
Best known is the district of Baku on the Caspian
Sea, and then southwards beyond the mouth of the
Kura. A rich field, where probably as much oil is
now extracted, is near Grozny, south of the river
Terek, near its tributary the Sunsha and the streams
falling into this. In the flat land south of Petrovsk,
along the shore of the Caspian, there is also oil,
as also at the opposite north-west end of the range,
on the north side, near the Taman peninsula on the
Sea of Azov. But oil is found also in Georgia, south
ofthe mountains, between the Kura and its tributary
the Alazan. In many places, too, combustible gas
comes up from the ground, and in early times with
its flame it was an object of veneration to fire
worshippers.
Metals have not up till now been found in great
quantities in the Caucasus. Gold is found in some
of the streams, but hardly in paying quantities,

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