- Project Runeberg -  Through the Caucasus to the Volga /
194

(1931) [MARC] Author: Fridtjof Nansen Translator: Gerald C. Wheeler - Tema: Russia
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THROUGH THE CAUCASUS TO THE VOLGA
194
against the floats on the side of the wheel and
måkes this turn horizontally round, while the axle
goes straight up to the mill-stone, which is likewise
made to turn horizontally. This comes from the
time before the device had been found of trans
forming motion from a horizontal to a vertical axle.
There is still an advance to be made from this
heavy overshot wheel and to the turbine; but it
will come in good time.
The road wound along upwards between leafy
trees and gardens which were evidently irrigated
with water from the mountain above. Up and up
wc went, and so wc came into the narrow, crooked,
and steep streets of the town. The square stone
houses with flat roofs stood one above the other up
the steep slopes, as usually in the a-uls ofDaghestan.
The houses on the whole seemed comparatively
well kept, and the town had the typical look of a
thriving a-ul. Here and there were some small
gardens in among the houses, where there was a
big enough ledge and water to irrigate it. There
were also trees at many places around the town,
but otherwise these mountains, as wc have already
said, are quite bare and treeless. Wc saw a bigger
house in a comparatively large garden; here the
khan or shamkhal used once to live.
On a height to the west of the town, and joined
to it, rose a fort. The fortress of Burnaya, built by
General Velyaminov in 1821, Hes on the high
mountain above the town. It was, as was said
above (p. 129), besieged and nearly tåken by
Kasi-Mullah after he had captured Tarku in

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