- Project Runeberg -  A practical guide for Russian consular officers and all persons having relations with Russia /
194

(1916) Author: Alfons Heyking - Tema: Russia
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194 IMMIGRATION & EXPULSION OF ALIENS. P. v., Сн. xvi.

New South
Wales,
Victoria, West
and South
Australia.

§170.
United
States.

Besides the Commonwealth Act of 1901, the various States of
Australia, with the exception of Queensland, have statutes of their
own of an earlier date relating to Alien Immigration, which appear
to be still in force. The principal point to be noticed is that the
laws of New South Wales, Victoria, Western and South Australia,
have provisions for obliging the chartered agent or master of any
ship bringing a person of the prohibited class, to execute a bond for
a sum not exceeding £500 to cover the maintenance of such person.

In New Zealand and Tasmania, the Immigration Restriction
Acts, respectively of 1899 and 1898, follow the lines of the Natal
Acts, except that New Zealand does not class paupers or persons
likely to become a public charge with prohibited immigrants, and
provides that the education test shall not apply to persons of British
birth and parentage.

The Regulations of the United States of North America relating
to the admission of immigrants, comprise the following Acts passed
by the United States Legislature :—

By an Act of 1875 the immigration into the United States of women
for the purpose of prostitution, and of persons convicted of felonious
crimes (not political) was prohibited. An Act of 1882 imposed a duty
of 50 cents on each alien arriving by sea from a foreign port, and
excluded convicts, idiots, lunatics and persons unable to take care
of themselves without becoming a public charge. In 1885 came the
enactment prohibiting the immigration of any alien who had entered
into a contract to perform labour or service of any kind in the United
States. Certain exceptions were made to this general prohibition.
Further legislation followed in 1887 and 1888 ; and in 1891 the Act
was passed which remained in force until it was superseded by the
law approved on March 3rd, 1903.

By the Act of 1891, to the classes of persons excluded under earlier
laws were added : " All persons likely to become a public charge,
persons suffering from a loathsome or dangerous contagious disease,
persons who have been convicted of a felony or other infamous crime
or misdemeanour involving moral turpitude, polygamists, and also
(with certain exceptions) any person whose ticket is paid for with
the money of another, or who is assisted by others to come." Penalties
were imposed upon persons bringing into the United States, by vessel
or otherwise, aliens belonging to the prohibited classes, and the master
or owner of the vessel bringing them was bound under a penalty to
take them back to the port from which they came. All aliens
belonging to the prohibited classes, or who should become a public charge
within a year after landing, were, within that period, made liable to
deportation. An officer, called the Superintendent of Immigration,
was appointed with a staff of clcrks and inspection officers and
assistants, whose duty it was to board all vessels carrying immigrants,
and there inspect all aliens. " The inspection officers and assistants
shall have power to administer oaths, and to take and consider
testimony concerning the right of such aliens to enter the United States,
all of which shall be entered on record." " All decisions made by the
inspection officers and their assistants touching the right of any alien
to land when adverse to such right shall be final, unless appeal be

§§ 169, 170.

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