- Project Runeberg -  A practical guide for Russian consular officers and all persons having relations with Russia /
364

(1916) Author: Alfons Heyking - Tema: Russia
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3^4

PART X.

Legal Position of Foreigners in Russia.

384.
The legal
position of
foreigners
in Russia.

Austria,
Belgium,
Bulgaria,
China,
Congo Free
State,
Denmark,
France,
Germany,
Great
Britain,
Greece,
Italy, [-Netherlands,-]
{+Nether-
lands,+}
Persia,
Peru,
Portugal,
Roumania,
Servia,
Spain,
Sweden and
Norway, [-Switzerland, Turkey,-]
{+Switzer-
land, Tur-
key,+} United
States of
North
America.

CHAPTER I.—The right to follow certain
Occupations, to plead in Courts of Law, to inherit
Property, and to execute Wills.

Russian Consular Officers are frequently applied to by persons who
are desirous of entering into commercial relations with Russia, or
of engaging in business enterprises or investing money in Russian
securities and stocks, or of taking up their residence in the Empire,
for information as to the legal position of foreigners in Russia. It is,
therefore, desirable that Elective Russian Consular Officers should be
fully acquainted with the regulations governing such matters.

Treaties exist between Russia and most other European countries,
in which the mutual rights of their respective subjects to enter into
and reside in the territories of the contracting Powers are specially
marked out. Such treaties have been concluded by Russia with
Austria, 14th September i860 and 18th May 1894 ; Belgium, 9th June
1858 ; Bulgaria, 14th July 1896 ; Great Britain, 12th January 1859 J
Germany, 10th February 1894 ; Greece, 12th June 1850 ; Denmark,
2nd March 1895 ; Spain, 2nd February 1895 ; Italy, 28th September
1863 ; China, 21st October 1727 ; Congo Free State, 5th February
1885 ; Netherlands, 13th September 1846 ; Persia, 10th February
1828 ; Peru, 16th May 1874 ; Portugal, 9th July 1895 ; Roumania,
1st October 1893 ; Servia, 15th October 1893 ; United States, 18th
December 1832 ; Turkey, 10th June 1783 and 3rd February 1862 ;
France, 1st April 1874 ; Switzerland, 26th December 1872 ; Sweden
and Norway, 8th May 1838.1

The following is the substance of the principal provisions of these
treaties, which may be taken as typical: " The subjects of each of
the contracing parties who conform to the laws of the country
(1) shall have full liberty, with their families, to enter, travel, or reside
in any part of the dominions and possessions of the other contracting
party ; (2) they shall be permitted to have or possess such houses,
factories, warehouses, shops, and premises as they require ; (3) they
may carry on their business either in person or through agents ;
(4) they shall not be subject, in respect of commerce or industry,
to any taxes, whether general or local, or to any imposition of any
kind whatever, other or greater than those which can or may be
imposed upon native subjects."

1 Conventions, treaties, and agreements between Russia and foreign States
published by the Imperial Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Vol. I. Petrograd.
1902.

§384.

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