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(1916) Author: Alfons Heyking - Tema: Russia
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372

RIGHT TO ACQUIRE PROPERTY. P. x., Сн. nr.

property in Russia, and if they possess such property, they must sell
it not later than in six months’ time, or, if they have acquired a lease
on property in Russia, they are obliged to sell the lease not later
than in one year’s time. Germans and Austrians who were naturalised
in Russia after the ist January, 1880, as well as their descendants,
are likewise forbidden to acquire real property in Russia. An
exception to this rule is admitted in the case of Slavs, also of those who have
been converted to the Greek Orthodox faith before the ist January
1914, and of those who have distinguished themselves on the
battlefield by deeds of valour, thus clearly proving their devotion to Russia.
In certain border provinces, as for instance, the Crimea, all those of
German extraction, even if they are Russian subjects, are compelled to
sell their real property, or the lease of such, not later than one year
and four months, dating from the time when this law came into
force.

§ 387.
Foreigners.
Company
rights in
Russia.

CHAPTER IV.—ricxht of Foreign Companies to
conduct Operations and Law Suits in Russia.

The term " foreign companies " only applies to companies established
abroad by foreigners, in accordance with the laws of their particular
countries, for the purpose of engaging in commercial or industrial
enterprises within the Russian Empire. Any company, therefore,
established by foreigners in Russia and in accordance with Russian
law, is considered to be a Russian company. A foreign company is
not entitled to engage in any commercial or industrial enterprise
within the Empire, unless a treaty or convention of reciprocity on the
subject has been concluded between Russia and the country in which
such society was formed. It follows, therefore, that, in the absence
of any such special treaty or convention, a foreign company possesses
no rights in Russia whatever. Such treaties have been concluded
by Russia with France (2nd October 1863) ; Belgium (concluded on
the i8th/3oth November 1865 and modified by the law of the 22nd
May 1884) ; Italy (2nd October/8th November 1866) ; Austria
(i6th/28th January 1867) ; Germany (i8th/30th July 1885) ; Greece
(nth December 1887) » Bulgaria (2nd July 1897) ; Switzerland (19th
October/ist November 1903) ; United States of North America (12th/
25th June 1904) ; Great Britain (i6th/29th December 1904) ; Sweden
(i6th/29th May 1915).

Foreigners are not permitted to hold shares in Russian steamship
companies. Until the year 1904 this restriction existed only as regards
steamship companies of the Caspian Sea.1 But, by the law of the
year 1904 on " the right of navigation under the Russian national
flag," this restriction has been extended to all the steamship companies
of the Russian Empire. By this law it was also established that all ships
belonging to foreigners were forbidden to sail under the Russian flag.2

1 Section 2139 note 3 of the X. Vol., Part I., Ed. 1883.

2 Sbornick of Russian laws of 1904, No. 133, Section 1422.

§ 387.

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