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174

(1902) [MARC] Author: Niels Christian Frederiksen
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fifty-four marks extra for iron and nails, and seven
marks twenty penni for artificial manure, or a total of
240 marks more. It is not certain that a larger
revenue would be obtained for the Treasury; the moderate
Finnish tariff, just because of its moderate and less
protective character, brings in much more per head of the
population than the Russian tariff — not far from three
and a half times as much, the last year’s average being
from thirteen to fourteen marks per head in Finland
against four marks in Russia. The truth is that the
Russian system is in the highest degree harmful to
Russia herself, increasing the price of such raw material
as pig iron by 70 per cent., billets of iron by 45
per cent., and steel by 35 per cent.; increasing
enormously the cost of such enterprises as the
construction of railways and factories, the building of
ships, farming, and, indeed, of all industrial life, not to
mention the increased cost of such common things as
salt, coffee, and sugar. In Finland, all industries and
industrial life in general necessitate commerce with
other countries; and free import from Russia could
not replace this. It is not only that most things
would cost more; but many would be unobtainable
from Russia. It would not, as is the case with tariff
unions between many other countries, be an advance.
It would be an enormous set-back to the whole of
civilisation. It is to be hoped that the Finnish nation
will not be obliged to witness the fulfilment of this
menace.

As shown by the figures of the total Finnish commerce
with other countries, the value of the import is
as a rule much higher than the export. Partly, this
difference is only apparent; the value of the imports,
which are liable to duty, being calculated more exactly
than the exports. Partly, it is due to the calculation

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