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(1889) [MARC] Author: Georg Brandes Translator: Samuel Coffin Eastman
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Impressions of Russia

by DR. GEORG BRANDES Author of "Eminent Authors of the Nineteenth Century" TRANSLATED FROM THE DANISH by SAMUEL C. EASTMAN NEW YORK THOMAS Y. CROWELL & CO. 13 Astor Place Copyright, 1889, by T. Y. Crowell & Co. C. J. PETERS & SON, Typographers and Electrotypers, 146 High Street, Boston.

Preface to the electronic edition

This book was published in Danish in 1888. Its text can be found in volume 10 of the collected works (1902) by Georg Brandes. It was translated to English and published both in London and New York in 1889. The Internet Archive digitized a copy in the University of California libraries in 2007, of the New York printing. The Danish Royal Library has digitized a copy of the London printing. From the Internet Archive, the scanned images were copied to Project Runeberg in August 2016 with our own OCR text added, intended for proofreading.

This volume was scanned elsewhere and made available by the Internet Archive, from where the scanned images were copied to Project Runeberg. We very much appreciate that they have made this possible and want to encourage other digital library projects to follow their example. Read more about Project Runeberg's image sources.


The above contents can be inspected in scanned images: frontespis, title page, verso of title leaf, v

Korrstapel / Proof bar for this volume

Table of Contents


Title and contents - frontespis, title page, verso of title leaf, v
Preface by S. C. E. - iii
Introduction by G. B. - ix, x
I - 1, 2, 3, 4
    The Russian Empire.—Extent.—Natural conditions.—Characteristics of Russia
II - 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16
    Country and cities.—St. Petersburg and Moscow.—Homogeneity of nature.—Difference of the seasons
III - 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34
    The character of the people.—Have the Russian people originality?—What it consists of in ordinary matters, in the social, communal, and intellectual domain.—The popular disposition and popular ideal.—The Black Earth
IV - 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67
    Life of the Russian people.—No popular education.—Peasants and workmen.—Superstition and ignorance.—Submissiveness.—The Russian intelligentia.—“Nigilists” of both sexes.—Contrast between the standpoint of the intelligent youth and the common people
V - 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79
    Literary and artistic festivals.—The official world.—Ministers.—Censors.—Governors.—Ultra-conservative youth
VI - 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107
    The élite.—Intellectual aristocracy in Russia and Poland.—The fundamental interests of Russia are modern.—Contact with the official circle.—Instability and capriciousness.—Family dramas.—Russian types of aristocracy.—Two currents in Russian intellectual life: the European and Slavophilist.—The Russian dilemma
VII - 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135
    Feelings in regard to prospects of war.—Longing for defeat.—Antecedents of the present condition.—Court circles.—Social influence of Herzen and Katkóf.—The abolition of serfdom.—The significance of the suppression of the Polish insurrection.—Fundamental, political, and religious re-action.—Terrorists and attempts at assassination.—Foreign and domestic policies
VIII - 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155
    The Russian press.—Newspapers and periodicals.—Contemporary men of talent, older and younger.—Original men in science and literature.—The Russian public and its receptiveness
IX - 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173
    Art.—Russian characteristic and quality of imitation in architecture and the fine arts.—History of the art of building and of religious pictures.—Development of the art of painting from the time of Catherine to the present time: Brylof, Ivánof, Kramskoï, and Riepin.—Sculpture: Antopolski.—Industrial art.—Relation between the course of development of art and literature
    Impressions of Russian Literature - 175
I - 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203
    Herodotus and Ovid concerning the country and its climate.—Herodotus on the customs and myths of the Scythians.—Resemblance between a Scythian myth and one related in the bîlinî.—Kola-Xais and Mikula. —Ovid’s account of the Black Sea coast and its inhabitants.—Chronicle of Nestor.—Parallel between the accounts of Nestor and the Icelandic sagas.—Scandinavians and Russians.—Slavic mythology.—The bîlinî.—Parallel between the contents of these and the old Norse myths and traditions.—The song of Igor.—Its characteristics, and extracts from it
II - 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227
    The Russian national literature.—The popular ballads of Little Russia and Great Russia.—Their characteristics.—Russian love.—Lomonósof, the founder of the modern literature.—How far he is a typical Russian.—Derzhavin and classicism.—Influence of Holberg on the Russian theatre.—Zhukovski and romanticism
III - 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243
    Pushkin.—Emancipation of poetry.—His life and poetry.—Pushkin and Byron.—Lermontof .—His life and character.—His poetry and Pushkin’s
IV - 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270
    The national characteristic.—The Little Russians, Gogol and Shevtchenko.— Gogol’s satire and genius.—His ruin.—The history of Shevtchenko’s sufferings and his poetry.—The reformers Herzen and Tchernuishevski.—Herzen and Byelinski.—Herzen creates a public sentiment.—Imprisonment and sentence of Tchernuishevski.—His fate and ideas.—The typical Russian in his principal work
V - 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300
    Turgenief, the first Russian author who becomes cosmopolitan.—His pessimism.—He is an artist and philosopher.—His efforts for the liberation of the serfs.—Characteristics both of him and of his novels
VI - 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335, 336, 337
    Dostoyevski.—His optimism.—His complex character.—His life of Christian emotion.—His debut.—Byelinski and Dostoyevski.—His arrest and sentence.—The house of correction in Siberia.—His novels.—His labors as a Slavophilist journalist
VII - 337, 338, 339, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344, 345, 346, 347, 348, 349, 350, 351, 352, 353
    Tolstoï.—The strength of his nature and fancy.—The epic character of his imagination.—His realism and power of divination.—His historical portraits.—Their defects.—His fatalism.—His description of how men die.—His ideal of a return to nature.—His pessimism and the French.—His Christian socialism, so typically Russian.—His life and teaching.—His labors for the elevation and education of the people.—His portraits.—What they teach.—Kramskoï’s portrait and Riepin’s painting.—Tolstoï as Prince of the Ploughshare.—Black Earth

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