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(1923) [MARC] Author: Fridtjof Nansen - Tema: Russia
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and still more by hiring it out, a man could live
without working. All property, houses, woods,
land, mines, etc., were therefore nationalised.

Free trade had also to be abolished. It created
a class of middlemen, who were considered
superfluous. The shops were closed. All trade, except
in certain products, was forbidden. The necessaries
of life would be distributed by the State.

On the whole it must be said that the Communist
theories professed by the revolutionary Bolsheviks
of 1917 have pre-eminently had negative results:
the dissolution of the old army, the disturbance of
social conditions, etc., etc.

In their attempted practical application they led
to the formation of economic organisms which were
so artificial, and which acted so inefficiently, that
they could only be kept going for some years at the
cost of enormous sacrifices.

The nationalised undertakings, such as banks,
transport, factories, mines, municipal agriculture,
and warehouses, were combined into enormous
organisations which worked for the account of the
the State, and which were meant to provide every
thing necessary for the people.

Not only could the clumsy machinery thus
created not satisfy the consumers’ most necessary
requirements, except in an extremely inadequate
way, but it was solely by help of the old stocks of
all sorts which existed that this could be done at
all for a short time. These supplies were exhausted
after a few years, and then a change of system
became inevitable.

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