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52

(1923) [MARC] Author: Fridtjof Nansen - Tema: Russia
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payment from the public who received the
advantages of their work.

The railways, tramways, water transport, and
electric services organised themselves (or tried to
organise themselves) on a commercial basis; the
factories were grouped in trusts, and sold their
products through Co-operative Societies and private
stores, in order themselves and at their own expense
to arrange for the supply and utilisation of
rawstuffs.

Under the Communist regime a factory got its
raw materials from the State; it did not pay its
workmen, as they received their “pajok”
(Government ration of food), and cards which gave them
access to the Government stores to procure such
clothes, boots, etc, as they had a right to. On the
other hand, the factory had to hand over its whole
production to the State.

Since the introduction of the “new economic
policy” everything has to be paid for.

Every undertaking must have its own budget,
and its income and expenditure must balance; for
the Soviet Government has come to the end of its
gold reserves and cannot contribute to other
economic organisations than those which are
absolutely indispensable for the life of the State. Those
undertakings which show a deficit run the risk of
being hired out to private owners, given under a
concession to foreigners, or simply closed.

In reality, it is impossible to describe in a few
words Russia’s economic organisation, because
several types of organisation exist simultaneously.

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