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(1914) [MARC] Author: Fridtjof Nansen Translator: Arthur G. Chater - Tema: Russia
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is thus lower than that of Christiania. At the town of
Nikolåyevsk at the mouth of the Amiir, in latitude
53° N., that is, a little more northerly than Berlin and
a little more southerly than Manchester, the mean
annual temperature is about -2° C. (28*4° F.). The
temperature in winter sometimes descends to —46° C.
( -50-8° F.), and in summer it rises above 30° C. (86° F.).
The northern part of the country is little suited to agri
culture, but the districts on the lower course of the
Amiir and near its mouth are said to have good meadow
land with large crops of hay. The southern section of
the Maritime Province, in spite of its comparatively
cold climate, offers favourable conditions for agri
culture ; the soil is fertile in parts ; precipitation,
it is true, is not great, but as here again it falls chiefly
in the summer, there is no lack of moisture. In Vladi
vostok the precipitation is 14*5 inches, in Khabarovsk
23*5 inches, and between the Sikhotå-Alrn range and
the Ussiiri there is said to be a great rainfall in summer.
On the other hand, there is little snow over the whole
country in winter, on account of the prevailing north
westerly winds.
Formerly the whole country was inhabited by
various tribes of Tunguses, such as the existing Oroches,
the Golds, and others. They lived sometimes on the
rivers, where they fished in summer, sometimes roaming
through the forests, hunting sables, racoons, and other
animals. The Golds of the Ussiiri valley had also a
little agriculture. In the districts on the north, near
the mouth of the Amiir, is found that remarkable
people, the Gilyaks, also a race of fishermen and hunters,
but apparently not originally related to the Tungus
tribes. Many students, such as Dr. Sternberg and
Captain Arseniev, have recently suggested the possibility
of their håving come, like the Eskimo, the Aleuts and

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