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(1914) [MARC] Author: Fridtjof Nansen Translator: Arthur G. Chater - Tema: Russia
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other peoples, from the north-east, from America, and
of their being related to the American peoples. Here
again we find the same extraordinary mixture of tribes
of entirely different origin. Not far away, on the
island of Sakhalin, dwells that curious race, the Ainos,
who are distinguished from all other natives of Asia
in particular by their great growth of hair ; they have
long beards. It has been thought that they may
be the last remnant of stems which were related to
the Papuans and Australian blacks, and which once
extended northward along the east coast of Asia.
We know little of the earlier history of the Ussuri
country, and most of our knowledge is derived from
Chinese historians. About 300 b.c, a stem called
the Damalu occupied the coast to the east of Sikhotå-
Alin, and to the west of the range lived another people,
the Ilou, on the upper course of the Ussuri and west
ward to the Sungari. These Ilou are also mentioned
with certainty in northern Manchuria under the second
Han dynasty in China (25-220 a.d.), and seem to have
been a Tungus tribe ; they were in the neolithic stage,
were hunters, and lived, we are told, in caves in the
mountains and forests. They had bows and arrows,
and were practised in the use of boats. This Stone Age
was immediately followed by the Iron Age, without
any intervening Bronze Age. The Ilou hunted the
bear, the elk and the stag, and are said to have been
warlike and dangerous to their neighbours. But later on
we hear that the Ilou had herds and a little agriculture.
Then, in the middle of the seventh century, the
Bokhi, or perhaps more correctly, Bokhai domination
was established in northern Manchuria. This was a
Tungus stem, which little by little subdued the whole
of Northern Manchuria, defeated the Ilou, and afterwards
conquered the southern Ussuri country. This became

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