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(1914) [MARC] Author: Fridtjof Nansen Translator: Arthur G. Chater - Tema: Russia
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the north, he sailed southward again and tried to force his
way through the ice towards White Island ; after going between
thirty and forty sea-miles through heavy ice, he succeeded in
making a passage and reached White Island on August 26.
He stayed there eleven days to erect a sea-mark of concrete,
sixty feet high. On September 6he arrived at Vilkitsky Island,
where another sea-mark was set up, and on September 10 he
proceeded to Dickson Island, where a mark was erected on the
island of Verns. It was not until September 25, that Morosov
left there again and sailed to the west in a heavy storm. There
was scattered ice, but on the following day he met with closer
ice to the north-east of Vilkitsky Island. So much snow fell
that it filled up the intervals between the floes, and as there
was also frost, the position of the vessel became dangerous ;
on September 27 she was entirely shut in and drifted with
the ice ; but two days later the ice opened somewhat, and
she was able to come out into open sea on the other side.
Through entirely ice-free water Morosov then went round
the north of White Island and southward along the west
coast of Yamal, and on October 1 he reached the Yugor
These three expeditions through the Kara Sea in 1913
show that in August there was still a great deal of ice in the
eastern part of that sea and to the north-west of Yamal. The
quantity of ice decreased greatly towards the close of the month,
and in the latter part of September neither the Correct nor the
Nikolai II encountered ice on the whole voyage through the
Kara Sea from White Island to Vaigach.
In order to form an opinion of future prospects of regular
navigation in the Kara Sea, a knowledge of previous experiences
in its waters is important.
We do not know how early the sea-route from Europe to
Siberia became known, or when trading communication was
developed by this way. In 1620 navigation by this route
was forbidden by the Tsar of Russia, and the little we know of
voyages before that time is mainly derived from the few Western
Europeans who attempted in the sixteenth century to find the
sea-route to China along the coast of Siberia. We also find some

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