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(1914) [MARC] Author: Fridtjof Nansen Translator: Arthur G. Chater - Tema: Russia
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notices in the chronicles of Novgorod, and in reports of the
voyevods of Tobélsk, who persistently sought to obtain the
prohibition of voyages between the White Sea and the rivers
of Siberia.
From these authorities it is sufficiently clear that in the
latter half of the sixteenth century there was a well-known
trading communication along the coast from the Pechora and
the White Sea to the Gulf of Obi." The usual route was doubtless
through the Yugor Strait, but perhaps the Kara Strait was also
used, when the former was obstructed by ice—and then along
the south coast of the Kara Sea to Yamal. As a rule the course
was not round the north of this peninsula, but along two rivers
which run right across it to the Gulf of Obi.
1556. In 1556 Stephen Burrough was sent out from England
to find the Obi, which was known from hearsay. He
arrived on August 10 at the Kara Strait and Vaigach.
He was prevented by ice from entering the Kara Sea,
but from a Russian walrus-hunter he obtained much
information which showed that the continuation of the
route to the estuary of the Obi was well known to the
Russians at that time.
1580. In 1580 Arthur Pet and Charles Jackman left England
with two ships to seek the North-East Passage. On
August 2 Pet went through the Kara Strait into the Kara
Sea. Jackman also reached this sea with his ship, but there
was a great deal of ice as they sailed to the east along its
south coast. It is possible that they got far enough to
sight Yamal, but on August 7 they had to turn back.
On August 27 they came out again through the Kara
Strait going west.
1581. Various rumours point to a Western European ship,
perhaps English, håving been wrecked at the mouth of
the Obi in 1581, and to her crew håving been massacred
by the Samoyedes, who thought they had come to rob
and oppress them.
1594. In 1594 an expedition of four ships was dispatched from
Holland to find the North-East Passage. While Willem
Barentsz with two ships sailed northward along the west

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