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(1914) [MARC] Author: Fridtjof Nansen Translator: Arthur G. Chater - Tema: Russia
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them in the Yugor Strait, that one year was not like another ;
that it had been a long and hard winter, which in their opinion
explained the unfavourable nature of the ice conditions that
A comparison of the average temperatures of the air in winter
and summer in the region bordering on the Kara Sea, with the
ice conditions prevailing in that sea, would necessarily afford a
means of testing the correctness of the theory here put forward.
But unfortunately there is no meteorological station near the
Kara Sea where regular observations have been made during
a long series of years. The nearest station is Maliye Karmakuli,
on the west coast of Novaya Zemlya, but from there we have
only a fairly continuous series of observations between the years
1896 and 1910, besides an intermittent record for a few separate
winters before that time : 1876-77, 1878-79, 1882-83, and
1891-92. We must therefore have recourse to stations
to the south on the mainland, and the nearest of these is
Obdorsk, from which we have an excellent series of observa
tions from the autumn of 1882 to 1913. The nearest station
in Russia is at Pustozersk on the Pechora. From there obser
vations are available from New Year 1901 to the spring of 1906,
when the station was discontinued ; but at the same time
regular observations were commenced at Oxino, which lies at a
short distance from it.
By the kind courtesy of the director of the Central
Physical Observatory in St. Petersburg, and of the subdirector,
Mr. E. Stelling, I have been given a transcript of all the mean
monthly temperatures reported from these stations.
The mean figures from Obdorsk are calculated from observa
tions tåken at 7 a.m., 1 p.m., and 9 p.m., and have been corrected
to the true mean for the twenty-four hours. The same is the
case with the figures for Karmakuli. On the other hand, the
monthly means for Pustozersk and Oxino are calculated direct
from the daily observations tåken at 7 a.m., 1 p.m., and 9 p.m.,
without any correction.
From these various monthly means I have then added up
the figures given in the following Tables. Table I gives a com
parison of the mean temperature for each winter, from
November 1 to the end of April, for each station. Table II

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