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Full resolution (TIFF) - On this page / på denna sida - Some remarks upon the geographical distribution of vegetation in the colder Southern Hemisphere. By Carl Skottsberg. Botanist of the Swedish Antarctic Expedition 1901—1903. With 2 maps, tabl. 8 and 9. - General survey of the austral of or palæooceanic (Engler) realm. - I. The antarctic dominion.

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DISTRIBUTION OF VEGETATION IN THE COLDER SOUTH HEMISPHERE. 413,

transport a species from one place to another. At Beatrice Point
I found, at the foot of a steep mountain wall, a small plateau,
leaning gently towards north and irrigated by the melting snow
from the cliffs above - of course a most favourable situation.
Here the photograph, reproduced above (Fig. i), was taken; it shows,
large swelling carpets of Brachythecium antarcticum Card. var.
cavi-folium Card., forma robusta, bright green with a silvery cast. In
this carpet also grew two liverworts, Lophozia badia (G.) St. and
Floerkei (W. & M.) St. In the fissures of the cliffs lived two kinds of
Andreoa, one Barbula (?), one Bryum (?) and two Polytrichum-sptcies.
The stone was covered by lichens such as Gyrophora (?), Usnea, Lecidea
geographica (L.) Fr., Lecanora-species, etc. - On a small islet very
near Cape Skottsberg (the south cape of Trinity Island) I saw, on
some big stones, the most splendid lichenous vegetation I ever met
with in the Antarctic. Its greater and dominating part formed
Pla-codium regale Wain., developed to a wonderful luxuriance; with it
also Placodium lucens Nyl. and Lecanora chrysoleuca (Im.) Ach. (?)
occurred. And this bright yellow-orange covering was stained with
the emerald-green spots of Prasiola crispa (Lightf.) Menegh.

Already from a distance Moss Island looked as if favourable
habitats for antarctic flora would be found there, and this was really
the case: here the antarctic tundra had unfolded all its treasures.
Brownish-green Polytrichum-\.\\i\&\& covered the greater part of
the ground, and in the dense mosscarpet Deschampsia antarctica
(Hook.) Desv. sought shelter for its rare, tiny tufts, never trying to form
a formation itself. Further, we observed two Dicran urn-species and
several other mosses. Amongst the Polytrichum there grew in
abundance several fruticulous lichens such as Cladina (very similar
to our common »reindeermoss»), Sphorophorus sp., Cladonia [-(pyxi-data?}-] {+(pyxi-
data?}+} and a Stereocaulon. An Ochrolechia covered dead parts of
the mosscarpet. On moist places a Hypnum was found abundantly.
The dry, stony places had another vegetation, composed of an
Andreoa-formation with Cladonia cfr. pyxidata and C. cfr. gr act Iis.
The stones were inhabited by the usual lichens.

In general the antarctic mosses collected were entirely barren,.
but sometimes, so for instance on Challenger Island, one Barbula.
and one Andreoa were found in fine fruit.

The Andreæa-formation mentioned above was also well developed
on the stony slopes near Mount Brans fi eld on the mainland. The
stones were completely clothed by the Usneas, and a Cetraria, pro-

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