- Project Runeberg -  A practical guide for Russian consular officers and all persons having relations with Russia /
18

(1916) Author: Alfons Heyking - Tema: Russia
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18

RIGHTS AND PRIVILEGES. P. i„ Сн. ѵн.

§26.
In the [-Netherlands.-]
{+Nether-
lands.+}

§27.
In Greece.

§28.
Consular
rank and
precedence.

§29.
Associations
of Consuls.

§30.
Doyen of
Consuls.

§§ 26, 27, 28,
29, 30.

" therefore be subject to the laws of the country, without prejudice
" to the performance of his Consular duties or to the inviolability of
" the Consular archives."

Similar stipulations are provided in the Treaty of Commerce
and Navigation concluded between Russia and the Netherlands on
the ist/i3th September 1846 (Art. 14), and in the protocol of the
Treaty of Commerce and Navigation concluded between Russia and
Greece on the 12th June 1850. The latter treaty contains (Art. 8) the
following statement : "As long as the Exequatur is not withdrawn
" from a person fulfilling a Consular Office, he is not liable to arrest."

Consuls are not entitled to special honours in Christian countries.
It is not customary for them to be presented to the Sovereign of the
country in which they are officially resident : at some courts, indeed,
this is precluded. As regards the question of precedence and other
formalities in the case of public festivities, the Consuls must conform
to local usage. They may not claim any honour which is not accorded
to Consuls by local custom.

As regards the question of rank of the Consuls of various powers,
these are now universally decided on the principles, adopted with
respect to diplomatic agents at the Vienna Congress of 1815, according
to which the Consuls are ranged in the order of their Consular rank,
i.e., first the Consuls-General, then the Consuls, and lastly the
Vice-Consuls. The order of precedence of the individuals in the various
classes is determined by seniority of service. The British " General
Instructions" state under this head that: "Consular Officers will
" take rank in their respective grades amongst their colleagues at the
" port of their residence in conformity with the rules prescribed by
" the Congress of Vienna for diplomatic agents," viz. : Seniority
according to official title and to priority of recognition.
Consuls-General who are, in addition, " Agents," " Political Agents," "
Commissioners," &c., have no right of precedence of the Consuls-General
of other States who have not similar titles. At assemblages of all the
Consuls resident at any given place, the "doyen" of the Consular
body presides. He is also entitled to summon such meetings of the
Consular body, but he cannot force anyone to make monetary
payments. In order to collect money for the entertainment of the local
authorities, and for subscribing to charitable funds on behalf of
Consular Officers in certain places, as, for instance, in London, voluntary
Consular associations have been formed. No Consul is obliged to
join these Associations and to pay the fee for the annual membership.
Those who join, partake in the social entertainments arranged by the
Consular Association and oblige themselves to observe its rules and
regulations.

The question whether only a State Consul may be the doyen at
assemblages composed of both State and Elective Consuls is decided
by local usage. It has often been considered permissible to
acknowledge an Elective Consular official as the doyen of a Consular body.
Whether this could be objected to is debatable. It must, however,
be admitted, that it is preferable for the doyen to be a State Consul,
for the following reasons : under the existing Consular Conventions,
a State Consul has more rights and privileges than an Elective Consul ;

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