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50

(1916) Author: Alfons Heyking - Tema: Russia
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50 COMMERCIAL RELATIONS OF RUSSIA, &c. P. п., Сн. i.

The existing Russian tariff, which deals with goods coming from
Western Europe and America, is very elaborate, there being over
800 articles on which duty is levied. It is contained in the sixth
volume of the Russian Svod Zakonov and is divided into two parts,
the general tariff applicable to countries with which Russia has no
special commercial treaty, and the so-called conventional treaty,
under which the duties are lower, which is applicable to countries
under which Russia has a commercial treaty. The Conventional
Tariff has been in force since the year 1893. Although Russia had
concluded commercial and navigation treaties with many European
countries before that year, for instance in the year 1859 with Great
Britain, the only clauses in these treaties were general stipulations
as to the rights of the subjects of the contracting Powers to trade
and engage in commerce in the respective countries, the right of free
sea traffic, and the right of the most-favoured nation.

In the decade between 1885 and 1895 some European and American
countries began to introduce special increased duties to protect their
own industries, thus affecting the interests of the countries that had
previously been exporting those special articles. As long as these
increased duties only touched manufactured goods, the increases were
not of great importance to Russia, because of the still small amount
of such goods produced by her. Later, however, a number of countries
introduced high duties for the protection of agriculture, and this
seriously affected Russia, since her chief export trade consisted of
agricultural produce. Russia had therefore to conclude special
customs tariff agreements, by which the duties were decreased. The
first of these agreements was in 1893, when a special convention was
concluded between Russia and France, by which the duty on 52
different articles of commerce imported from France was reduced from
10 to 25 per cent., and in exchange France consented to reduce the
duty on raw naphtha and its products. In 1894, a treaty was made
between Russia and Germany, by which the duty was lessened on
135 articles imported from Germany and in exchange certain
reductions were made in favour of Russia. Similar treaties were concluded
with many other States. The following table shows the dates of the
various commercial treaties entered into between Russia and other
countries :—

Countries.

Dates of conclusion of
the Treaties.

Dates of
expiration of the Treaties.

§42.
Commercial
Conventions
concluded
by Russia.

§42.

Persia - February 10, 1828 - Without Term.

U.S. of North America - December 14, 1832 - One year after

revocation.

Sweden and Norway - May 8, 1838, and ,,

August 9, 1906.
Holland - - - September 13, 1846
-Greece - June 24, 1850 - ,,

Belgium - - - June 9, 1858 -
-Great Britain - January 12, 1859

Austria-Hungary - - September 14, i860 - ,,

Turkey - February 3, 1862

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