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(1869) [MARC] Author: Rasmus Rask
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Inflection of Words.

1. The Noun.

41. Nouns are divided into two orders, the open and the
closed; the one is more simple in its inflection, the other more

The first has but one declension, the second has two.
Each has three genders. The Neuter is the most simple.
Open Order.
42. First Declension.
the eye the sunbeam the tongue
Neuter. Masculine. Feminine.
Sing. Nom. auga, geisli, túnga
        Acc. Dat. Gen. auga, geisla, túngu (o)
Plural Nom. augu (o), geislar, túngur (or),
Acc. augu (o), geisla, túngur (or),
Dat. augum (om), geislum (om), túngum (om),
Gen. augna geisla túngna

43. Nouns, whose chief letter is a, change a into ö
before the terminations in u (31):
hjarta, Plural, D. hjörtum, (the heart)
kappi - - köppum, (the champion)
saga, A. D. G. sögu - sögur, sögum, (the saga)

on the other hand a changes into u in the following syllables,
as: harpari, hörpurum; leikari, leikurum.

44. Some masculine substantives ending in ingi, take a
j in all other cases, as:
höfðíngi, höfðingja, höfðingjar — the captain;
illvirki, illvirkja — the illdoer;
vili, vilja — will.

45. Masculines ending in andi form their plural irregularly,
f. i. búandi, which word is at the same time contracted, as:
Sing. Nom. búandi (the yeoman) bóndi, (e)
Acc. Dat. Gen. búanda bónda,
Plur. Nom. Acc. búendr̓, bœndr̓, bændr̓,
Dat. buöndum, -endum, bóndum, bændum,
Gen. búanda, -enda bónda, bænda.

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