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54

(1869) [MARC] Author: Rasmus Rask
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Syntax.

165. In the position of sentences the Old Norsk resembles
the Danish, but the definite inflection to which the ancients
paid great attention, gave them greater scope and freedom in
the composition of the sentence. — The most remarkable
difference of this kind is the custom of placing the verb,
particularly the Imperfect, before the noun or pronoun, as:

kallaði Njall þetta lögvörn; —
varu í þessu þá margir höfðingjar; —
ok fèkst þat af;
gengu hvârirtveggju þá; —
ríða þeir nú heim.


166. The numeral pronouns up to 29 are always added to
the noun as adjectives, whether declinable or not, as:

        þrir íslenzkir menn; fimtán bœndr; tuttugu skip
(HK. 3, 344),

but 30 and the higher decimals govern the word in the Acc. as:

        þrjátigi skipa; sextigi heiðingja (Fins. 6, 61);
tíutigi manna (Fms. 7, 303).

The reason of this is, that the last part of this compound is
a noun (119) as with

        hundrað as: þrjú hundruð nauta.

167. The Verbs frequently govern the Gen. as in other
languages, often the Dat. and Acc. Some govern two cases,
two Gen., two Dat. or Gen. and Dat., Dat. and Acc. etc.

One of these rules has such expansion that we must
specify it; it is this: a number of verbs govern the Dative, showing
that a thing changes place and position, without being changed
in its own basis, as:

        sný, vendi, fleygi, kasta, skýt, lypti, dreifi, sái,
stýri, ræð
etc.

Some take the Gen. in a different signification, as:

        hann skaut öru til mannsins; but:

        skjóttu manninn þann hinn mikla.

All Verbs which express a use, assistance, injury, saying etc.
govern the Dative, some of them take two Datives, as:

        hann lofaði henni þvi; hon svaraði hânum þvi.


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