- Project Runeberg -  A practical guide for Russian consular officers and all persons having relations with Russia /
195

(1916) Author: Alfons Heyking - Tema: Russia
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Р. ѵ.,Сн. xvi. IMMIGRATION & EXPULSION OF ALIENS. 195

taken to the Superintendent of Immigration, whose action shall be
subject to review by the Secretary to the Treasury. The Secretary
to the Treasury was empowered to make rules for inspection of
immigrants along the borders of Canada, British Columbia and Mexico."

In 1894 the poll tax was raised from 50 cents to one dollar, and
by the Act of 1903 it has been raised to two dollars, and was extended
to arrivals overland. The Act of 1903 consolidates the existing law
and still further extends the classes of prohibited aliens by the addition
of " epileptics," f< persons who have been insane within five years, or
who have had two or more attacks of insanity," " professional beggars,"
" anarchists," and " contract labourers who have been deported
within the previous year." Certain changes were made in procedure.
If the officer whose duty it is to examine the aliens on landing decides
in favour of the admission of any alien, any other Immigration Officer
may challenge his decision and bring the alien before a board of special
inquiry. " Any alien who may not appear to the examining
Immigrant Inspector to be clearly and beyond a doubt entitled to land
shall be detained for examination in relation thereto by a board of
special inquiry." These boards consist of three persons appointed
by the Commissioners of Immigration at the various ports of arrival.
It is their duty to decide whether any alien who has been " held "
as above stated shall be allowed to land or be deported ; and both
the alien and any member of the Board dissenting from the decision
have an appeal to the Secretary of the Treasury, whose decision is
final. The penalties upon shipowners, masters and others bringing
any alien into the United States not duly admitted by an Immigrant
Inspector or not lawfully entitled to enter the United States, are
largely increased. The offence is made a misdemeanour punishable
by a fine not exceeding 1,000 dollars for every alien " so landed or
attempted to be landed," or by imprisonment for a term not less
than three months or more than two years, or by both fine and
imprisonment. By section 20 the period within which persons who
become a public charge from causes existing prior to landing may be
deported is extended to two years.

In Germany and in most of the States on the frontiers of the Russian
Empire, no special regulations for the admission of aliens have been
enacted. The law regulating the Passport System of October 1867,
which applies mutatis mutandis to the German Empire, provides
(Art. 2) that foreigners are not required to carry papers of identity
either on entering, or on leaving, the limits of the Empire, nor during
their residence there, nor in the course of their journeys within the
territory. Foreigners, however, as well as subjects of the Empire,
are obliged to furnish satisfactory proof of their identity when officially
required to do so (Art. 3). On the other hand, if the security of the
Empire or of a single State thereof, or if law and order should be
threatened in consequence of war, external disturbances or other
phenomena, passports may be required by the Imperial Authority
either generally, or in particular districts, for the purpose of
proceeding from or to certain foreign countries (Art. 9).

In the kingdom of Prussia a decree dated January 3rd, 1896,
was issued by the Minister of Interior, directing local authorities to

S 171.

§171.
Germany
and Prussia.

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