- Project Runeberg -  Finland : its public and private economy
(1902) [MARC] Author: Niels Christian Frederiksen
Title and contents | Next >>
  Project Runeberg | Like | Catalog | Recent Changes | Donate | Comments? |   

FINLAND ITS PUBLIC AND PRIVATE ECONOMY

BY N. C. FREDERIKSEN FORMERLY PROFESSOR OF POLITICAL ECONOMY AND FINANCE IN THE UNIVERSITY OF COPENHAGEN LONDON EDWARD ARNOLD Publisher to the India Office 1902 Printed by Ballantynk, Hanson & Co. Edinburgh & London

Preface to the electronic edition

The Danish work Finland : dets private og offenlige økonomi (1901) was translated to English, apparently by its original author. He acknowledges help, but doesn't name any translator. In August 2010, the book was digitized at the University of Toronto by the Internet Archive, from where the scanned pages were copied to Project Runeberg in March 2018.

This volume was scanned elsewhere and made available by the Internet Archive, from where the scanned images were copied to Project Runeberg. We very much appreciate that they have made this possible and want to encourage other digital library projects to follow their example. Read more about Project Runeberg's image sources.


The above contents can be inspected in scanned images: pretitle, title page, v, vi, vii, viii, ix

Korrstapel / Proof bar for this volume

Table of Contents


Title and contents - pretitle, title page, v, vi, vii, viii, ix
Note - verso of title leaf
Authorities Consulted - x
I. Peculiarities of Finnish Civilisation - 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16
    Aristotle on Northern agricultural nations — Scandinavian influence on European civilisation — Ancient inhabitants of Finland — Settlement of the Finns — Lapps — Gipsies — Crusades in Finland — Swedish freedom — Difference in language — Importance of the Swedish language — Limitations of old settlements — Settlements in the interior — “Birkarlar” — Small number of parishes — Small population in former times — Famines — Advantages of the climate — Progress in wealth — Comparison with the United States
II. The Agricultural Classes - 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33
    The peasantry in Northern countries — Poverty of Finnish peasants — Great peasant farms in the West and South — In Savolaks and Carelia — “Savu-pirtti” — Origin of these — Buildings in wood and stone — Bath-houses — Area and price of farms — Village communities — Torps and torp-holders — Form of payment by torp-holders — New legislation — “Backstugusittare” — “Inhysingar” — Other agricultural labourers — Classes on the islands — The large farms — Joint-stock companies — Renting of land — Boställen — Ecclesiastic farms — No privileged class
III. The Land Laws of Finland - 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52
    Free development — Enclosures — Settlements in the forests — Right of settling — Torp-holders under the Crown — “Kronohemman” — Community of possession — Burning of forests by associations of peasants — Russian donation-estates — Oppression of peasants — Re-union of Viborg with Finland — Full rights of property for the Nobles — Modern example of mediseval development — Purchase of donation-estates by the government — Conditions of re-sale to the tenants — Comparison with Ireland — Land for the landless population — Permission to sub-divide the land — Land bought by town-folk — Loans from public funds — Development of credit — Promise of land by Russian pedlars — New fund for the benefit of the landless — Cottages for working men
IV. Methods and Conditions of Agriculture - 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73
    Soil — Increase of area — Climate — Barley — Rye — Wheat — Oats — Drying processes — Export of rye for seed — Buckwheat — Hemp — Flax — Turnips — Grasses — Natural grasses — Production of grain — Sowing in burnt-over forests — Burning of grass lands — Rotation of crops — Artificial manure — Agricultural implements — Import-duty on these — Horses — Export of horses — Sheep — Reindeer — Cows — Swine — Duty on maize — Value of domestic animals — Dairy-business — Frozen cream — Great future for dairy-business — Unwise suppression of margarine — Astonishing proposition from Russian quarters — Total of agricultural pruduce — Wise government assistance — Agricultural associations — Institution for lending money to co-operative associations — Ordinary credit — Development of the Lapmark — Public funds
V. Forestry - 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110
    Extent of the forests — Future of the country — Soil — Location of the forests in the highlands — Pine — Fir — Birch — Alder — Aspen — Other trees — Berries — Waste of wood — Cultivation by burning the woods — Useful burning — Tar manufacture — Saw-mills — Export of other forms of wood — Pulp and paper — Progress of export of wood — Destruction of private forests — The peasants and the woods — Duty on export of wood — Enclosure — Common woods — Control of private owners — Prejudice against commerce — Joint-stock companies as owners — Fire and wind — Damage by cattle — Peculiar situation in the North — Crown forests — Establishing a forest administration — Instruction in forestry — Question of separating lands for agricultural purposes — Mercantile ideas — Purchase of forests — Question of colonisation — Necessary work — Public farms — Value of government forests — Output — Reason of forest destruction — Principles of forest administration — Comparison with other countries — Value of the lumber business to the country
VI. Mining and Manufacturing Industries - 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152
    General character of mines and manufactures — Granite — Limestone — Brick kilns — China, earthenware, &c. — Glass — Gold — Copper — Iron ore — Pig iron — Smelting and rolling-mills — Nails and other forged products — Doubtful future — Use of steel and pig iron — Engineering works and shipyards — Imports — Protection — Private works — Artisans working in metals — Calcium carbide and chloride of potash — Chemical products of wood — Leather — Soap and candles — Matches — Flour mills — Sugar — Bakeries — Distilleries — Breweries — Tobacco — Printing — Cotton industry — Linen — Woollens — Hosiery and knitted goods — Ready-made clothes — Question of the productive character of the textile industries — Comparison with Russia — Privileges for Tammerfors — Sawmills — Planing-mills and cabinet-making — Bobbins — Pulp and paper — Factories — Total industrial progress — Artisans — Wages — Women — Children’s work — Insurance against accidents — Associations, &c. — Household industry — Personal capacity — Industrial liberty — Water power — Privileges — Question of tariff union with Russia
VII. Commerce, Navigation, and Fisheries - 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184
    Progress of commerce — Composition of the export — Increase in consumption — Trade with Russia — Trade with England — Germany — Denmark — Sweden — Norway — France — Spain — Holland and Belgium — United States — Trade in butter — Commerce and the tariff — Treaty with Spain — Relations with Russia — Present arrangement — Bad consequences of a tariff union — Explanation of the surplus import — Commercial marine — Clearance of ships — Fishing marine — Treatment of fish — Fishery legislation — Artificial fish cultivation — Coast of the Polar Sea and of the White Sea — Finnish migrations to the sea — Utilisation of the Russian coast by Finlanders
VIII. Money and Banking - 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226
    Connection between money and the banking system — Swedish money — Establishment of the Bank of Finland — Silver money, 1840–54 — Principles of administration in the Bank of Finland — Final introduction of silver standard — Gold Standard Act — Final organisation of the Bank — Object of the Bank’s activity — Character of the private banks — Abolition of private note-issue — Mistake made by the Bank of Finland — Banking law of 1886 — Föreningsbanken — Nordiska Aktiebanken — Other banks — Statement of the Bank of Finland — Statements of the private banks — The banks during the period of expansion and restriction — In the sixties — The beginning of the seventies — Last half of the seventies — The eighties — Bad times in the early part of the nineties — Expansion of business — Contraction — Situation of the Treasury — Mortgage Association of Finland — Mortgage bank for the cities — Mortgage departments in the banks — No Stock Exchange — Savings banks — Warehouses for grain — Insurance — Fire insurance — Insurance against accidents — Personal accidents — Life insurance
IX. Means of Communication - 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246
    Waterways — Rapids — Canals — Importance for the lumber export — Floating — Direct interest of the government — Navigation on the sea — Roads in old times — Recent construction of roads — First construction of railroads — Question of private railways — Construction in rich or poor parts of the country — Cost of building — New lines — Total extent of the railways — Construction of private railways continued — Passenger traffic — Goods traffic — Result of low tariff — Interest on the capital — Increase in gross revenue an argument in favour of government railways — Cheapest capital obtained by the government — Beginning of the post — Modern postal reform — Increase of postal matter — Transfer to Russian Department of posts and telegraphs — Obligation to carry travellers — Russian telegraph — The Finnish railroad telegraph — Telephone
X. The Exchequer and Civic Duties - 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277
    Excellent finance — Peculiar character of the budget — Present budget — Ordinary revenue — Income of public property and works — Character of the public expenses — Public debt — Voting of supply — Formation of separate funds — Centralisation of finances — Reform in the accounts — Local funds of general utility — Pension funds — State assets — Public credit in relation to Russia — Church revenues — Town municipalities — Rural Communes — Total of direct taxes — Land tax — Payment in kind — Personal tax — Centonal — Tax of traders in the country and of chemists — Export duty on wood — Former income-tax to the Crown — Income-tax in the towns — Income-tax in rural districts — New propositions to impose income-tax — Stamp duties — Excise of alcohol and beer — Custom duties — Financial possibility of reform — The tariff and the Estates — Russia and the tariff — The old Swedish military organisation — Finland after the union with Russia — Organisation of 1879 — Russian attacks on the military organisation — Threatened emigration — Actual organisation — New military laws
XI. The Government of Finland and its Future - 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300
    Character of the government — Central administration — Local organisation — Election of officials — Lutheran clergy — The Greek Orthodox Church — The Communes — Higher schools — Primary schools — The women — Associations — The two languages — The Russian language — The press — Finnish way of thinking — Finnish legal order — Income of the people — Comparison with other countries — Increase in income — Statistics of population — Progress of the industrial and commercial classes — Government and public progress — Montesquieu on good government and rich nations — Force of resistance — Bad effects — Attack on the legal order
General Map of Finland - map
Statistical Maps of Finland - maps
Index - 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306
    Administration ... - 301
    Barley ... - 302
    Farms ... - 303
    Labourers ... - 304
    Parishes ... - 305
    Taxes ... - 306

Project Runeberg, Tue Mar 20 01:55:11 2018 (aronsson) (diff) (history) (download) Next >>
http://runeberg.org/finecon/

Valid HTML 4.0! All our files are DRM-free