- Project Runeberg -  An American Dilemma : the Negro Problem and Modern Democracy
(1944) [MARC] Author: Gunnar Myrdal
Title and contents | Next >>
  Project Runeberg | Like | Catalog | Recent Changes | Donate | Comments? |   
Note: Gunnar Myrdal died in 1987, less than 70 years ago. Therefore, this work is protected by copyright, restricting your legal rights to reproduce it. However, you are welcome to view it on screen, as you do now. Read more about copyright.

AN AMERICAN DILEMMA The Negro Problem and Modern Democracy

by GUNNAR MYRDAL with the assistance of RICHARD STERNER and ARNOLD ROSE HARPER & BROTHERS PUBLISHERS New York London AN AMERICAN DILEMMA Copyright, 1944, by Harper & Brothers Printed in the United States of America All rights in this book are reserved. No part of the book may be reproduced in any manner whatsoever without written permission except in the case of brief quotations embodied in critical articles and reviews. For information address Harper & Brothers B-W This study was made possible by funds granted by Carnegie Corporation of New York. That corporation is not, however, the author, owner, publisher, or proprietor of this publication, and is not to be understood as approving by virtue of its grant any of the statements made or views expressed therein.

Preface to the electronic edition

This book has its own article in Wikipedia. It is not a translation, it was written in English by Swedish economist Gunnar Myrdal and first published in the United States in 1944. As stated in the author's preface, it is a joint work of several people; two of the co-authors are named on the title page, but we prefer to view it as a work of the main author alone.

Gunnar and his wife Alva Myrdal in a will bequeathed their copyright to a fund, which is now maintained by the City of Stockholm. In April 2011, the city's committee on cultural affairs decided to release the copyright under the Creative Commons Attribution Share Alike (CC-BY-SA) license.

This book has been digitized several times. Several copies can be found on the Internet Archive, some of them with some pages missing. We have used one containing all pages, with only some minor scanning errors at the bottom of a few pages. The resolution is not as good as we would wish. Some of the small print is hard to read. This copy was scanned in July 2015 somewhere in India and uploaded in January 2017. In April 2020, the scanned images and OCR text were copied to Project Runeberg, to allow for online proofreading.

This volume was scanned elsewhere and made available by the Internet Archive, from where the scanned images were copied to Project Runeberg. We very much appreciate that they have made this possible and want to encourage other digital library projects to follow their example. Read more about Project Runeberg's image sources.


The above contents can be inspected in scanned images: pretitle, title page, verso of title leaf, xxvii, xxviii, xxix, xxx, xxxi, xxxii, xxxiii, xxxiv, xxxv, xxxvi, xxxvii

Korrstapel / Proof bar for this volume

Table of Contents


Title and contents - pretitle, title page, verso of title leaf, xxvii, xxviii, xxix, xxx, xxxi, xxxii, xxxiii, xxxiv, xxxv, xxxvi, xxxvii
Foreword, by Frederick P. Keppel - v, vi, vii, viii
Author’s Preface - ix, x, xi, xii, xiii, xiv, xv, xvi, xvii, xviii, xix, xx
Acknowledgments - xxi, xxii, xxiii, xxiv, xxv
List of Tables - xxxix, xl, xli, xlii
List of Figures - xliii
Introduction - xlv, xlvi, xlvii, xlviii, xlix, l, li, lii, liii, liv, lv, lvi, lvii, lviii, lix
    1. The Negro Problem as a Moral Issue - xlv
    2. Valuations and Beliefs - xlvii
    3. A White Man’s Problem - li
    4. Not an Isolated Problem - lii
    5. Some Further Notes on the Scope and Direction of this Study - lv
    6. A Warning to the Reader - lviii
    I. The Approach - 1
1. American Ideals and the American Conscience - 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25
    1. Unity of Ideals and Diversity of Culture - 3
    2. American Nationalism - 5
    3. Some Historical Reflections - 6
    4. The Roots of the American Creed in the Philosophy of Enlightenment - 8
    5. The Roots in Christianity - 9
    6. The Roots in English Law - 12
    7. American Conservatism - 12
    8. The American Conception of Law and Order - 13
    9. Natural Law and American Puritanism - 15
    10. The Faltering Judicial Order - 17
    11. Intellectual Defeatism - 19
    12. “Lip-Service” - 21
    13. Value Premises in This Study - 23
2. Encountering the Negro Problem - 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49
    1. On the Minds of the Whites - 26
    2. To the Negroes Themselves - 27
    3. Explaining the Problem Away - 30
    4. Explorations in Escape - 32
    5. The Etiquette of Discussion - 36
    6. The Convenience of Ignorance - 40
    7. Negro and White Voices - 42
    8. The North and the South - 44
3. Facets of the Negro Problem - 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80
    1. American Minority Problems - 50
    2. The Anti-Amalgamation Doctrine - 53
    3. The White Man’s Theory of Color Caste - 57
    4. The “Rank Order of Discriminations” - 60
    5. Relationships between Lower Class Groups - 67
    6. The Manifoldness and the Unity of the Negro Problem - 73
    7. The Theory of the Vicious Circle - 75
    8. A Theory of Democracy - 78
    II. Race - 81
4. Racial Beliefs - 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112
    1. Biology and Moral Equalitarianism - 83
    2. The Ideological Clash in America - 84
    3. The Ideological Compromise - 88
    4. Reflections in Science - 89
    5. The Position of the Negro Writers - 93
    6. The Racial Beliefs of the Unsophisticated - 97
    7. Beliefs with a Purpose - 101
    8. Specific Rationalization Needs - 106
    9. Rectifying Beliefs - 108
    10. The Study of Beliefs - 110
5. Race and Ancestry - 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136
    1. The American Definition of “Negro” - 113
    2. African Ancestry - 117
    3. Changes in Physical Appearance - 120
    4. Early Miscegenation - 123
    5. Ante-Bellum Miscegenation - 125
    6. Miscegenation in Recent Times - 127
    7. “Passing” - 129
    8. Social and Biological Selection - 130
    9. Present and Future Genetic Composition Trends - 132
6. Racial Characteristics - 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153
    1. Physical Traits - 137
    2. Biological Susceptibility to Disease - 140
    3. Psychic Traits - 144
    4. Frontiers of Constructive Research - 149
    III. Population and Migration - 155
7. Population - 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181
    1. The Growth of the Negro Population - 157
    2. Births and Deaths - 161
    3. Summary - 165
    4. Ends and Means of Population Policy - 167
    5. Controlling the Death Rate - 171
    6. The Case for Controlling the Negro Birth Rate - 175
    7. Birth Control Facilities for Negroes - 178
8. Migration - 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201
    1. Overview - 182
    2. A Closer View - 185
    3. The Great Migration to the Urban North - 191
    4. Continued Northward Migration - 196
    5. The Future of Negro Migration - 197
    IV. Economics - 203
9. Economic Inequality - 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219
    1. Negro Poverty - 205
    2. Our Main Hypothesis: The Vicious Circle - 207
    3. The Value Premises - 209
    4. The Conflict of Valuations - 215
10. The Tradition of Slavery - 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229
    1. Economic Exploitation - 220
    2. Slavery and Caste - 221
    3. The Land Problem - 224
    4. The Tenancy Problem - 227
11. The Southern Plantation Economy and the Negro Farmer - 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250
    1. Southern Agriculture as a Problem - 230
    2. Overpopulation and Soil Erosion - 231
    3. Tenancy, Credit and Cotton - 232
    4. The Boll Weevil - 234
    5. Main Agricultural Classes - 235
    6. The Negro Landowner - 237
    7. Historical Reasons for the Relative Lack of Negro Farm Owners - 240
    8. Tenants and Wage Laborers - 242
    9. The Plantation Tenant - 245
12. New Blows to Southern Agriculture During the ’Thirties: Trends and Policies - 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278
    1. Agricultural Trends during the ’Thirties - 251
    2. The Disappearing Sharecropper - 253
    3. The Role of the A.A.A. in Regard to Cotton - 255
    4. A.A.A. and the Negro - 256
    5. The Local Administration of the A.A.A - 258
    6. Mechanization - 259
    7. Labor Organizations - 261
    8. The Dilemma of Agricultural Policy - 264
    9. Economic Evaluation of the A.A.A - 265
    10. Social Evaluation of the A.A.A - 267
    11. Constructive Measures - 270
    12. Farm Security Programs - 273
13. Seeking Jobs Outside Agriculture - 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303
    1. Perspective on the Urbanization of the Negro People - 279
    2. In the South - 280
    3. A Closer View - 284
    4. Southern Trends during the ’Thirties - 288
    5. In the North - 291
    6. A Closer View on Northern Trends - 293
    7. The Employment Hazards of Unskilled Work - 296
    8. The Size of the Negro Labor Force and Negro Employment - 297
    9. Negro and White Unemployment - 301
14. The Negro in Business, the Professions, Public Service and Other White Collar Occupations - 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332
    1. Overview - 304
    2. The Negro in Business - 307
    3. Negro Finance - 314
    4. The Negro Teacher - 318
    5. The Negro Minister - 321
    6. The Negro in Medical Professions - 322
    7. Other Negro Professionals - 325
    8. Negro Officials and White Collar Workers in Public Service - 327
    9. Negro Professionals of the Stage, Screen and Orchestra - 329
    10. Note on Shady Occupations - 330
15. The Negro in the Public Economy - 333, 334, 335, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344, 345, 346, 347, 348, 349, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361, 362, 363
    1. The Public Budget - 333
    2. Discrimination in Public Service - 334
    3. Education - 337
    4. Public Health - 344
    5. Recreational Facilities - 346
    6. Public Housing Policies - 348
    7. Social Security and Public Assistance - 353
    8. Specialized Social Welfare Programs during the Period After 1935 - 356
    9. The Social Security Program - 357
    10. Assistance to Special Groups - 358
    11. Work Relief - 360
    12. Assistance to Youth - 361
    13. General Relief and Assistance in Kind - 362
16. Income, Consumption and Housing - 364, 365, 366, 367, 368, 369, 370, 371, 372, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377, 378, 379
    1. Family Income - 364
    2. Income and Family Size - 366
    3. The Family Budget - 367
    4. Budget Items - 370
    5. Food Consumption - 371
    6. Housing Conditions - 375
17. The Mechanics of Economic Discrimination as a Practical Problem - 380, 381, 382, 383, 384, 385, 386, 387, 388, 389, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 395, 396
    1. The Practical Problem - 380
    2. The Ignorance and Lack of Concern of Northern Whites - 383
    3. Migration Policy - 386
    4. The Regular Industrial Labor Market in the North - 388
    5. The Problem of Vocational Training - 390
    6. The Self-Perpetuating Color Bar - 391
    7. A Position of “Indifferent Equilibrium” - 392
    8. In the South - 394
18. Pre-War Labor Market Controls and Their Consequences for the Negro - 397, 398, 399, 400, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 407, 408
    1. The Wages and Hours Law and the Dilemma of the Marginal Worker - 397
    2. Other Economic Policies - 399
    3. Labor Unions and the Negro - 401
    4. A Weak Movement Getting Strong Powers - 403
19. The War Boom—and Thereafter - 409, 410, 411, 412, 413, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421, 422, 423, 424, 425, 426
    1. The Negro Wage Earner and the War Boom - 409
    2. A Closer View - 411
    3. Government Policy in Regard to the Negro in War Production - 414
    4. The Negro in the Armed Forces - 419
    5. ... And Afterwards? - 423
    V. Politics - 427
20. Underlying Factors - 429, 430, 431, 432, 433, 434, 435, 436, 437, 438, 439, 440, 441, 442, 443, 444, 445, 446, 447, 448, 449, 450, 451
    1. The Negro in American Politics and as a Political Issue - 429
    2. The Wave of Democracy and the Need for Bureaucracy - 432
    3. The North and the South - 437
    4. The Southern Defense Ideology - 441
    5. The Reconstruction Amendments - 445
    6. Memories of Reconstruction - 446
    7. The Tradition of Illegality - 448
21. Southern Conservatism and Liberalism - 452, 453, 454, 455, 456, 457, 458, 459, 460, 461, 462, 463, 464, 465, 466, 467, 468, 469, 470, 471, 472, 473
    1. The “Solid South” - 452
    2. Southern Conservatism - 455
    3. Is the South Fascist? - 458
    4. The Changing South - 462
    5. Southern Liberalism - 466
22. Political Practices Today - 474, 475, 476, 477, 478, 479, 480, 481, 482, 483, 484, 485, 486, 487, 488, 489, 490, 491, 492, 493, 494, 495, 496, 497, 498, 499, 500, 501, 502, 503, 504
    1. The Southern Political Scene - 474
    2. Southern Techniques for Disfranchising the Negroes - 479
    3. The Negro Vote in the South - 486
    4. The Negro in Northern Politics - 491
    5. What the Negro Gets Out of Politics - 497
23. Trends and Possibilities - 505, 506, 507, 508, 509, 510, 511, 512, 513, 514, 515, 516, 517, 518, 519, 520
    1. The Negro’s Political Bargaining Power - 505
    2. The Negro’s Party Allegiance - 508
    3. Negro Suffrage in the South as an Issue - 512
    4. An Unstable Situation - 514
    5. The Stake of the North - 515
    6. Practical Conclusions - 518
    VI. Justice - 521
24. Inequality of Justice - 523, 524, 525, 526, 527, 528, 529, 530, 531, 532, 533, 534
    1. Democracy and Justice - 523
    2. Relative Equality in the North - 526
    3. The Southern Heritage - 529
25. The Police and Other Public Contacts - 535, 536, 537, 538, 539, 540, 541, 542, 543, 544, 545, 546
    1. Local Petty Officials - 535
    2. The Southern Policeman - 538
    3. The Policeman in the Negro Neighborhood - 540
    4. Trends and Outlook - 544
    5. Another Type of Public Contact - 545
26. Courts, Sentences and Prisons - 547, 548, 549, 550, 551, 552, 553, 554, 555, 556, 557
    1. The Southern Courts - 547
    2. Discrimination in Court - 550
    3. Sentences and Prisons - 553
    4. Trends and Outlook - 555
27. Violence and Intimidation - 558, 559, 560, 561, 562, 563, 564, 565, 566, 567, 568, 569
    1. The Pattern of Violence - 558
    2. Lynching - 560
    3. Tne Psychopathology of Lynching - 563
    4. Trends and Outlook - 565
    5. Riots - 566
    VII. Social Inequality - 571
28. The Basis of Social Inequality - 573, 574, 575, 576, 577, 578, 579, 580, 581, 582, 583, 584, 585, 586, 587, 588, 589, 590, 591, 592, 593, 594, 595, 596, 597, 598, 599, 600, 601, 602, 603, 604
    1. The Value Premise - 573
    2. The One-Sidedness of the System of Segregation - 575
    3. The Beginning in Slavery - 577
    4. The Jim Crow Laws - 578
    5. Beliefs Supporting Social Inequality - 582
    6. The Popular Theory of “No Social Equality” - 586
    7. Critical Evaluation of the “No Social Equality” Theory - 589
    8. Attitudes among Different Classes of Whites in the South - 592
    9. Social Segregation and Discrimination in the North - 599
29. Patterns of Social Segregation and Discrimination - 605, 606, 607, 608, 609, 610, 611, 612, 613, 614, 615, 616, 617, 618, 619, 620, 621, 622, 623, 624, 625, 626, 627, 628, 629, 630, 631, 632, 633, 634, 635, 636, 637, 638, 639
    1. Facts and Beliefs Regarding Segregation and Discrimination - 605
    2. Segregation and Discrimination in Interpersonal Relations - 606
    3. Housing Segregation - 618
    4. Sanctions for Residential Segregation - 622
    5. The General Character of Institutional Segregation - 627
    6. Segregation in Specific Types of Institutions - 632
30. Effects of Social Inequality - 640, 641, 642, 643, 644, 645, 646, 647, 648, 649, 650, 651, 652, 653, 654, 655, 656, 657, 658, 659, 660, 661, 662, 663
    1. The Incidence of Social Inequality - 640
    2. Increasing Isolation - 644
    3. Interracial Contacts - 650
    4. The Factor of Ignorance - 656
    5. Present Dynamics - 660
    VIII. Social Stratification - 665
31. Caste and Class - 667, 668, 669, 670, 671, 672, 673, 674, 675, 676, 677, 678, 679, 680, 681, 682, 683, 684, 685, 686, 687, 688
    1. The Concepts “Caste” and “Class” - 667
    2. The “Meaning” of the Concepts “Caste” and “Class” - 670
    3. The Caste Struggle - 676
    4. Crossing the Caste Line - 683
32. The Negro Class Structure - 689, 690, 691, 692, 693, 694, 695, 696, 697, 698, 699, 700, 701, 702, 703, 704, 705
    1. The Negro Class Order in the American Caste System - 689
    2. Caste Determines Class - 693
    3. Color and Class - 695
    4. The Classes in the Negro Community - 700
    IX. Leadership and Concerted Action - 707
33. The American Pattern of Individual Leadership and Mass Passivity - 709, 710, 711, 712, 713, 714, 715, 716, 717, 718, 719
    1. “Intelligent Leadership” - 709
    2. “Community Leaders” - 711
    3. Mass Passivity - 712
    4. The Patterns Exemplified in Politics and throughout the American Social Structure - 716
34. Accommodating Leadership - 720, 721, 722, 723, 724, 725, 726, 727, 728, 729, 730, 731, 732, 733, 734, 735
    1. Leadership and Caste - 720
    2. The Interest of Southern Whites and Negroes with Respect to Negro Leadership - 720
    3. In the North and on the National Scene - 722
    4. The “Glass Plate” - 724
    5. Accommodating Leadership and Class - 727
    6. Several Qualifications - 729
    7. Accommodating Leaders in the North - 733
    8. The Glamour Personalities - 734
35. The Negro Protest - 736, 737, 738, 739, 740, 741, 742, 743, 744, 745, 746, 747, 748, 749, 750, 751, 752, 753, 754, 755, 756
    1. The Slave Revolts - 736
    2. The Negro Abolitionists and Reconstruction Politicians - 737
    3. The Tuskegee Compromise - 739
    4. The Spirit of Niagara and Harper’s Ferry - 742
    5. The Protest Is Still Rising - 744
    6. The Shock of the First World War and the Post-War Crisis - 745
    7. The Garvey Movement - 746
    8. Post-War Radicalism among Negro Intellectuals - 749
    9. Negro History and Culture - 750
    10. The Great Depression and the Second World War - 754
36. The Protest Motive and Negro Personality - 757, 758, 759, 760, 761, 762, 763, 764, 765, 766, 767
    1. A Mental Reservation - 757
    2. The Struggle Against Defeatism - 758
    3. The Struggle for Balance - 759
    4. Negro Sensitiveness - 761
    5. Negro Aggression - 763
    6. Upper Class Reactions - 764
    7. The “Function” of Racial Solidarity - 766
37. Compromise Leadership - 768, 769, 770, 771, 772, 773, 774, 775, 776, 777, 778, 779, 780
    1. The Daily Compromise - 768
    2. The Vulnerability of the Negro Leader - 769
    3. Impersonal Motives - 769
    4. The Protest Motive - 771
    5. The Double Role - 772
    6. Negro Leadership Techniques - 773
    7. Moral Consequences - 774
    8. Leadership Rivalry - 775
    9. Qualifications - 775
    10. In Southern Cities - 776
    11. In the North - 777
    12. On the National Scene - 779
38. Negro Popular Theories - 781, 782, 783, 784, 785, 786, 787, 788, 789, 790, 791, 792, 793, 794, 795, 796, 797, 798, 799, 800, 801, 802, 803, 804, 805, 806, 807, 808, 809
    1. Instability - 781
    2. Negro Provincialism - 783
    3. The Thinking on the Negro Problem - 786
    4. Courting the “Best People Among the Whites” - 786
    5. The Doctrine of Labor Solidarity - 788
    6. Some Critical Observations - 790
    7. The Pragmatic “Truth” of the Labor Solidarity Doctrine - 792
    8. “The Advantages of the Disadvantages” - 794
    9. Condoning Segregation - 797
    10. Boosting Negro Business - 800
    11. Criticism of Negro Business Chauvinism - 803
    12. “Back to Africa” - 805
    13. Miscellaneous Ideologies - 807
39. Negro Improvement and Protest Organizations - 810, 811, 812, 813, 814, 815, 816, 817, 818, 819, 820, 821, 822, 823, 824, 825, 826, 827, 828, 829, 830, 831, 832, 833, 834, 835, 836, 837, 838, 839, 840, 841, 842, 843, 844, 845, 846, 847, 848, 849, 850, 851, 852, 853, 854, 855, 856, 857
    1. A General American Pattern - 810
    2. Nationalist Movements - 812
    3. Business and Professional Organizations - 815
    4. The National Negro Congress Movement - 817
    5. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People - 819
    6. The N.A.A.C.P. Branches - 822
    7. The N.A.A.C.P. National Office - 826
    8. The Strategy of the N.A.A.C.P. - 830
    9. Critique of the N.A.A.C.P. - 831
    10. The Urban League - 837
    11. The Commission on Interracial Cooperation - 842
    12. The Negro Organizations during the War - 850
    13. Negro Strategy - 852
40. The Negro Church - 858, 859, 860, 861, 862, 863, 864, 865, 866, 867, 868, 869, 870, 871, 872, 873, 874, 875, 876, 877, 878
    1. Non-Political Agencies for Negro Concerted Action - 858
    2. Some Historical Notes - 859
    3. The Negro Church and the General American Pattern of Religious Activity - 863
    4. A Segregated Church - 868
    5. Its Weakness - 872
    6. Trends and Outlook - 876
41. The Negro School - 879, 880, 881, 882, 883, 884, 885, 886, 887, 888, 889, 890, 891, 892, 893, 894, 895, 896, 897, 898, 899, 900, 901, 902, 903, 904, 905, 906, 907
    1. Negro Education as Concerted Action - 879
    2. Education in American Thought and Life - 882
    3. The Development of Negro Education in the South - 887
    4. The Whites’ Attitudes toward Negro Education - 893
    5. “Industrial” versus “Classical” Education of Negroes - 896
    6. Negro Attitudes - 900
    7. Trends and Problems - 902
42. The Negro Press - 908, 909, 910, 911, 912, 913, 914, 915, 916, 917, 918, 919, 920, 921, 922, 923, 924
    1. An Organ for the Negro Protest - 908
    2. The Growth of the Negro Press - 912
    3. Characteristics of the Negro Press - 915
    4. The Controls of the Negro Press - 920
    5. Outlook - 923
    X. The Negro Community - 925
43. Institutions - 927, 928, 929, 930, 931, 932, 933, 934, 935, 936, 937, 938, 939, 940, 941, 942, 943, 944, 945, 946, 947, 948, 949, 950, 951, 952, 953, 954, 955
    1. The Negro Community as a Pathological Form of an American Community - 927
    2. The Negro Family - 930
    3. The Negro Church in the Negro Community - 935
    4. The Negro School and Negro Education - 942
    5. Voluntary Associations - 952
44. Non-Institutional Aspects of the Negro Community - 956, 957, 958, 959, 960, 961, 962, 963, 964, 965, 966, 967, 968, 969, 970, 971, 972, 973, 974, 975, 976, 977, 978, 979, 980, 981, 982, 983, 984, 985, 986, 987, 988, 989, 990, 991, 992, 993, 994
    1. “Peculiarities” of Negro Culture and Personality - 956
    2. Crime - 966
    3. Mental Disorders and Suicide - 979
    4. Recreation - 982
    5. Negro Achievements - 986
    XI. An American Dilemma - 995
45. America Again at the Crossroads in the Negro Problem - 997, 998, 999, 1000, 1001, 1002, 1003, 1004, 1005, 1006, 1007, 1008, 1009, 1010, 1011, 1012, 1013, 1014, 1015, 1016, 1017, 1018, 1019, 1020, 1021, 1022, 1023, 1024
    1. The Negro Problem and the War - 997
    2. Social Trends - 998
    3. The Decay of the Caste Theory - 1002
    4. Negroes in the War Crisis - 1004
    5. The War and the Whites - 1008
    6. The North Moves Toward Equality - 1010
    7. Tension in the South - 1011
    8. International Aspects - 1015
    9. Making the Peace - 1018
    10. America’s Opportunity - 1021
    Appendices - 1025
1. A Methodological Note on Valuations and Beliefs - 1027, 1028, 1029, 1030, 1031, 1032, 1033, 1034
    1. The Mechanism of Rationalization - 1027
    2. Theoretical Critique of the Concept “Mores” - 1031
    3. Valuation Dynamics - 1032
2. A Methodological Note on Facts and Valuations in Social Science - 1035, 1036, 1037, 1038, 1039, 1040, 1041, 1042, 1043, 1044, 1045, 1046, 1047, 1048, 1049, 1050, 1051, 1052, 1053, 1054, 1055, 1056, 1057, 1058, 1059, 1060, 1061, 1062, 1063, 1064
    1. Biases in the Research on the American Negro Problem - 1035
    2. Methods of Mitigating Biases in Social Science - 1041
    3. The History and Logic of the Hidden Valuations in Social Science - 1045
    4. The Points of View Adopted in This Book - 1057
3. A Methodological Note on the Principle of Cumulation - 1065, 1066, 1067, 1068, 1069, 1070
4. Note on the Meaning of Regional Terms as Used in This Book - 1071, 1072
5. A Parallel to the Negro Problem - 1073, 1074, 1075, 1076, 1077, 1078
6. Pre-War Conditions of the Negro Wage Earner in Selected Industries and Occupations - 1079, 1080, 1081, 1082, 1083, 1084, 1085, 1086, 1087, 1088, 1089, 1090, 1091, 1092, 1093, 1094, 1095, 1096, 1097, 1098, 1099, 1100, 1101, 1102, 1103, 1104, 1105, 1106, 1107, 1108, 1109, 1110, 1111, 1112, 1113, 1114, 1115, 1116, 1117, 1118, 1119, 1120, 1121, 1122, 1123, 1124
    1. General Characteristics of Negro Jobs - 1079
    2. Domestic Service - 1082
    3. Other Service Occupations - 1087
    4. Turpentine Farms - 1089
    5. Lumber - 1090
    6. The Fertilizer Industry - 1096
    7. Longshore Work - 1097
    8. Building Workers - 1099
    9. Railroad Workers - 1105
    10. Tobacco Workers - 1107
    11. Textile Workers - 1110
    12. Coal Miners - 1112
    13. Iron and Steel Workers - 1115
    14. Automobile Workers - 1119
    15. The Slaughtering and Meat-Packing Industry - 1122
7. Distribution of Negro Residences in Selected Cities - 1125, 1126, 1127, 1128
8. Research on Caste and Class in a Negro Community - 1129, 1130, 1131, 1132
9. Research on Negro Leadership - 1133, 1134, 1135
10. Quantitative Studies of Race Attitudes - 1136, 1137, 1138, 1139, 1140, 1141, 1142, 1143
    1. Existing Studies of Race Attitudes - 1136
    2. The Empirical Study of Valuations and Beliefs - 1137
    3. “Personal” and “Political” Opinions - 1139
    4. The Practical Study of Race Prejudice - 1141
List of Books, Pamphlets, Periodicals, and Other Material Referred to in This Book - 1144, 1145, 1146, 1147, 1148, 1149, 1150, 1151, 1152, 1153, 1154, 1155, 1156, 1157, 1158, 1159, 1160, 1161, 1162, 1163, 1164, 1165, 1166, 1167, 1168, 1169, 1170, 1171, 1172, 1173, 1174, 1175, 1176, 1177, 1178, 1179, 1180
    Abbott ... - 1144
    Ayer ... - 1145
    Berle ... - 1146
    Brinton ... - 1147
    Cantor ... - 1148
    Collins ... - 1149
    Davenport ... - 1150
    Donaldson ... - 1151
    Du Bois ... - 1152
    Fitzhugh ... - 1153
    Gallup ... - 1154
    Greene ... - 1155
    Herskovits ... - 1156
    Hurston ... - 1157
    Johnson ... - 1158
    Kenney ... - 1159
    Litchfield ... - 1160
    Mangum ... - 1161
    Montague ... - 1162
    National ... - 1163
    Notestein ... - 1164
    Payne ... - 1165
    Powdermaker ... - 1166
    Richards ... - 1167
    Schuyler ... - 1168
    Social ... - 1169
    Tannenbaum ... - 1170
    Tolnai ... - 1171
    U.S. Bureau of the Census ... - 1172
    U.S. Department of Agriculture... - 1173
    U.S. Department of Labor ... - 1174
    U.S. Housing Authority ... - 1175
    U.S. Public Health Service ... - 1176
    U.S. Work Projects Administration ... - 1177
    Washington ... - 1178
    Willcox ... - 1179
    Woofter ... - 1180
Footnotes - 1181, 1182, 1183, 1184, 1185, 1186, 1187, 1188, 1189, 1190, 1191, 1192, 1193, 1194, 1195, 1196, 1197, 1198, 1199, 1200, 1201, 1202, 1203, 1204, 1205, 1206, 1207, 1208, 1209, 1210, 1211, 1212, 1213, 1214, 1215, 1216, 1217, 1218, 1219, 1220, 1221, 1222, 1223, 1224, 1225, 1226, 1227, 1228, 1229, 1230, 1231, 1232, 1233, 1234, 1235, 1236, 1237, 1238, 1239, 1240, 1241, 1242, 1243, 1244, 1245, 1246, 1247, 1248, 1249, 1250, 1251, 1252, 1253, 1254, 1255, 1256, 1257, 1258, 1259, 1260, 1261, 1262, 1263, 1264, 1265, 1266, 1267, 1268, 1269, 1270, 1271, 1272, 1273, 1274, 1275, 1276, 1277, 1278, 1279, 1280, 1281, 1282, 1283, 1284, 1285, 1286, 1287, 1288, 1289, 1290, 1291, 1292, 1293, 1294, 1295, 1296, 1297, 1298, 1299, 1300, 1301, 1302, 1303, 1304, 1305, 1306, 1307, 1308, 1309, 1310, 1311, 1312, 1313, 1314, 1315, 1316, 1317, 1318, 1319, 1320, 1321, 1322, 1323, 1324, 1325, 1326, 1327, 1328, 1329, 1330, 1331, 1332, 1333, 1334, 1335, 1336, 1337, 1338, 1339, 1340, 1341, 1342, 1343, 1344, 1345, 1346, 1347, 1348, 1349, 1350, 1351, 1352, 1353, 1354, 1355, 1356, 1357, 1358, 1359, 1360, 1361, 1362, 1363, 1364, 1365, 1366, 1367, 1368, 1369, 1370, 1371, 1372, 1373, 1374, 1375, 1376, 1377, 1378, 1379, 1380, 1381, 1382, 1383, 1384, 1385, 1386, 1387, 1388, 1389, 1390, 1391, 1392, 1393, 1394, 1395, 1396, 1397, 1398, 1399, 1400, 1401, 1402, 1403, 1404, 1405, 1406, 1407, 1408, 1409, 1410, 1411, 1412, 1413, 1414, 1415, 1416, 1417, 1418, 1419, 1420, 1421, 1422, 1423, 1424, 1425, 1426, 1427, 1428, 1429, 1430, 1431, 1432, 1433, 1434, 1435, 1436, 1437, 1438, 1439
    Introduction - 1181
    Chapter 1 - 1181
    Chapter 2 - 1183
    Chapter 3 - 1185
    Chapter 4 - 1187
    Chapter 5 - 1198
    Chapter 6 - 1212
    Chapter 7 - 1218
    Chapter 8 - 1229
    Chapter 9 - 1232
    Chapter 10 - 1233
    Chapter 11 - 1237
    Chapter 12 - 1243
    Chapter 13 - 1254
    Chapter 14 - 1259
    Chapter 15 - 1269
    Chapter 16 - 1283
    Chapter 17 - 1292
    Chapter 18 - 1295
    Chapter 19 - 1301
    Chapter 20 - 1309
    Chapter 21 - 1317
    Chapter 22 - 1322
    Chapter 23 - 1331
    Chapter 24 - 1335
    Chapter 25 - 1339
    Chapter 26 - 1343
    Chapter 27 - 1346
    Chapter 28 - 1351
    Chapter 29 - 1359
    Chapter 30 - 1369
    Chapter 31 - 1374
    Chapter 32 - 1380
    Chapter 33 - 1388
    Chapter 34 - 1389
    Chapter 35 - 1391
    Chapter 36 - 1394
    Chapter 37 - 1396
    Chapter 38 - 1397
    Chapter 39 - 1400
    Chapter 40 - 1411
    Chapter 41 - 1414
    Chapter 42 - 1423
    Chapter 43 - 1425
    Chapter 44 - 1431
    Chapter 45 - 1438
Index - 1441, 1442, 1443, 1444, 1445, 1446, 1447, 1448, 1449, 1450, 1451, 1452, 1453, 1454, 1455, 1456, 1457, 1458, 1459, 1460, 1461, 1462, 1463, 1464, 1465, 1466, 1467, 1468, 1469, 1470, 1471, 1472, 1473, 1474, 1475, 1476, 1477, 1478, 1479, 1480, 1481, 1482, 1483
    Abbott ... - 1441
    Alabama ... - 1442
    Arizona ... - 1443
    Behavior ... - 1444
    Brown ... - 1445
    Cash ... - 1446
    City ... - 1447
    Community ... - 1448
    Crime ... - 1449
    Democratic ... - 1450
    Disease ... - 1451
    Dueling ... - 1452
    Emigration ... - 1453
    Federal ... - 1454
    Funderal ... - 1455
    Hampton ... - 1456
    Human ... - 1457
    Infiltration ... - 1458
    Jenkins ... - 1459
    Jolson ... - 1460
    Law ... - 1461
    Lily-white ... - 1462
    Marginal ... - 1463
    Ministers ... - 1464
    Murray ... - 1465
    New ... - 1466
    North ... - 1467
    Park ... - 1468
    Politics ... - 1469
    Profits ... - 1470
    Race ... - 1471
    Ray ... - 1472
    Revolutions ... - 1473
    Seamstresses ... - 1474
    Slave ... - 1475
    Sons ... - 1476
    Sterility ... - 1477
    Tarkington ... - 1478
    Training ... - 1479
    Urbanization ... - 1480
    Waltershausen ... - 1481
    White ... - 1482
    Young ... - 1483

Project Runeberg, Tue Apr 14 04:34:19 2020 (aronsson) (diff) (history) (download) Next >>
http://runeberg.org/adilemma/

Valid HTML 4.0! All our files are DRM-free